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SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 
"^ IN NORFOLK 



Hundred Courts, Mote Hills, 
Toothills, 



AND 



Roman Camps and Remains 

in Norfolk 

SECOND EDITION 

(with over 200 additions to the three 
pamphlets published by me in 1916) 



BY 

WALTER RYE 



ISSUED TO SUBSCRIBERS ONLY AT 2/6 



Siovixiich : 
Primed by ROBERTS & Co., TEN BELL LANE 

Is8u«d to Subscribers by H. W. HUNT, ORFORD PLACE 

1920 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 
IN NORFOLK 



Hundred Courts, Mote Hills, 
Toothills, 



AND 



Roman Camps and Remains 
in Norfolk 

SECOND EDITION 

(with over 200 additions to the three 
pamphlets published by me in 1916) 



BY 

WALTER RYE 



ISSUED TO SUBSCRIBERS ONLY AT 2/6 



Printed by ROBERTS & Co., TEN BELL LANE 

Issued to Subscribers by H. W. HUNT, ORFORD PLACE 

1920 






FIRST EDITION, 1916. 

As I am not likely to live to use myself the 
notes I have made on the subjects mentioned in 
my prospectus (see p. 4 of cover) I have thought 
it best to print them in a short and cheap form 
for the use of others. 

I shall be greatly obliged if my readers will 
send rne ahy corrections or additions, or give them 
lo the City Librarian at the Public Library, Norwich, 
for insertion in an interleaved copy 1 am lodging 
there. (I received none in answer to this appeal). 



SECOND EDITION, 1920. 

I must acknowledge my obligations to Mr. 
W. G. Clarke, F.G.S., the Hon. Sec. of the Prehistoric 
Society of East Anglia, for having kindly added 
to this part. I received many valuable additions 
from the Rev. J. F. Williams of Beachamwell 
Rectory, Swaffham, all of which are incorporated 
in this edition. W.R. 



9 



SCANDINAVIAN 

NAMES 

IN 

NORFOLK. 



My views as to the probability of an ante-Roman Scan- 
dinavian settlement in Norfolk and elsewhere, were, 30 years 
ago, set out on pp. 4 et seq. of my ''Popular History of 
Norfolk," and I see no leason to modify them. 

No one has attempted to eixplain away the points I 
made that many places in England with Scandinavian pre- 
fixes, e.g., Brancaster and Doncaster, have had Roman 
affixes put on to them which shows that the Romans found 
the prefixes and added the affixes. Or that London had its 
prototype in a still existing Danish village, and that all 
along the river-bank places like Tilbury, Kew, etc., whose 
derivations have baffled the old style? of derivation-mongers, 
may still be found in Denmark. 

Round Norwich this is very marked, and the whole 
subject wants closer attention given to it than it has 
hitherto had. 



989864 



2 SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 

The following Scandinavian personal names are still to 
be found in Norfolk : — 



Abel 


Grumbold 


Raven 


Agard, Aggard 


Hacon 


Rudrum 


or Haggard 


Hagon 


Seago ? 


Algar 


Hammond 


Skyles 


Bacon 


Harrod ? 


Skoyles 


Bagge 


Harroid 


Snare 


*Balders 


Holm 


Snelling 


''Balding3 


Hubbard ? 


Swan 


"^Baklry 


Hubberst}^ 


Thorgrim 


Balls 


Jermin occurs in 


Thorold 


Barretr 


Denmark as 


Thurgar 


Bugg 


Jermiin 


Thurlow 


Craimer 


Kabell 


Thurston 


Fiske 


Kemp 


Thirkettle 


Fisker 


Ketill 


Thirtle 


Frey 


Knowt 


Trorey 


Frost 


Lock 


Tuck? 


Garneys 


lyovnes 


Ulfketel 


Gierling 


Nekar 


Ulph ? 


Grimmer 


Nelson 


Watling 



The terminations of names of existing villages bearing 
Scandinavian names are in the outer margin. Those in- 
dented are place-names I have noted from various books and 
records, and I have added about 120 new names to those 
hitherto known. 

Some notes as to the actual identities (78) either in 
whole or in part of the names of certain of our Norfolk 
villages with the existing Danish villages will be found on 
pp. 45-6 of my ^Topular History,'* on p. 7 of which, tables 
are given specifying 53 other of our villages which bear 
Scandinavian prefixes or affixes, as by, etc. 

By. 

Alby 
Aldeby 

Ashby (Flegg) 
Ashby (lyoddon) 
Ashby (Shropham) 

* The village of Baldeswell is doubtless named after one of the 
name of Balder. 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK 3 

Barnoldby (Pat. Cal., ii., p. 269) 

Bawburgh, called Bawby (Pat., 1358, p. 31) 

Billingsby (see Feet of Fines, Ric. & John, p. 113) 

Billockby 

Colby 

Filby 

Gunby Gate by Gunton (Bl. viii., p. 71) 

Hemsby 

Herringby 

lybey near Wood Bailing 

Kirby Bedon 

Kirby Cane 

Kirby Hill near Overstrand 

Maltby or Maiitby 

Oby or Ouby 

Ormesbiy 

Rollesby 

Scalby in Heigham (Bl. iv., p. 505) 

Scratby 

Sqnenceby manor in East Flegg (Rot. Hun. p. 

509) 
Stdkesby 
Threskelby near Wiggenhall St. Germans (6 

Edward II., p. 54) 
Thrigby 

Tyby Hamlet in Wood Balling 
Tytheby in Eynsford (B.B.B., p. 270) 
Wilby 

Flegg Hundreds. 

Fonth on Frith. 

Barford als' Barforth (Fines, 12 Eliz.) 

Belyngforth (Bl. v., p. 39) 

Cringleford was originally Kryngyl/ori/z. See 
account annexed 'to Roll 5, Henry V., re- 
lating to the Lathes Manor there belonging 
to St. Giles' Hospital (City of Norwich 
Muniment Room.) — Banish work has been 
recently found in Cringleford Church. 

Horsford used to be called Horsforth (T.B.L.) 

Conesford in Norwich 

Thursford used to be called Thursforth 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 

Cony ford Plantation, near Stiff key, is in a situ- 

ation where no ford in the usual sense of 
the word is possible 
Frith, several of the surname in 1348 (Terring- 

ton near Tilney) 
Frothbridge was the name by which Freebridge 

Hundred was known in 1348 (Mis. Inq., ii.^ 

No. 2072). 

Gay. 

Lyngey Close in Kempton 
Swangey near Hargham 
Wormegay or Wrongay 

Crave. 

Aiegrave (Fines) 

Bargraves, Over and Nether, in Felthorpe 

Bertigrave (Fines) 

Burgrave in North Elmham (Pat. Cal. 1382) 

Chedgrave 

Dudgrave (Fines) 

Flaxgrave in Felthorpe 

Hargrave near Felthorpe 

Hengrave, or Hingrave, in Alderford 

Illegrave (Feet of Fines, John p. 373) 

Lambsgrave (Fines) 

Saltgrave (Lete, p. 303) 

Saltgrave in Runton (North Erpingham, p. 222)- 

Wingrave (Fines) 

Haugh OP Ha>v. 

Ashmanhaugh 

Banham Haugh (In particulars of Sale, 1906) 

Belhawe near Arminghall (Bl. v., p. 420. N. 

Tour^ p. 742) 
Belaugh 
Bishopshaugh near Old Buckenham (Bl. i., p. 

369) 
Bylaugh 

Cowhawe in Lakenham (Bl. N. iv., p. 322) 
Easthaugh or Eastoe 
Grasshawe, hamlet in Ashmanhaugh 
Greenhaw le at Magdalen Chapel (Temp. Ed. I.) 
Greshaugh in Wymondham (Bl. ii., p. 499) 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 5 

Greshaugh in Bacton 

Grishaugh near Pulham (Rye's Index to Norf. 

Topography, p. 252) 
Gunshaw in Needham 
Haw hill near East Dereham 
Haw wood near Themelthorpe 
Herringshawe Manor in Dillington (Bl. x,, p. 47) 
Hawe, the, at Banham (Bl. i., p. 350) 
Levishaugh in Buxton 
Micklehaugh, south-west of Banham 
Senhaugh? (BL, p. 309) 
Strumpshaw 
Westhaugh near Plumstead 



Hoe on Howe. 

Aerkhowe (Burnham Court Rolls) 

Barrow (Munford, p. 55) 

Barrow I/Owes near Ormesby (Eliz., Norf. Re< 

cords, p. 276) 
Bassinghoe, Burnham 
Blakehoe near Kypon (Bl. ix., p. 526) 
Blundhowe (Burnham Court Rolls) 
Below for Belaugh 

Blethow at Walsingham (Bl. ix., p. 282) 
Boyshowe ^Nlarsh (Pat. Cal. iv., p. 613) 
Cowhawe in; Lakenham (Bl. N. iv., p. 522) 
Carrow 

Clerkhow in Burnham 
Cuneho Bridges near Bacton 
Darrow near Alburgh 
Darrow Wood at Denton 
Darrow Wood at Shelfanger 
Easthaugh, Easthoe 
Easthoe in Lyng 
Esco, a lost village, once in Hemesby (Bl. xi., 

p. 164) 
Farrow Shaw by Ditchingham 
Fifhowe in Wereham (Bryant's Clackclose) 
Forehoe Hundred 

Fromow Farm near Drayton (Bl. i., p. 117) 
Gallow Hundred 
Gannowe Gap in Fieethorpe 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOI.K. 

Greenhaw ]\Iill Hill near Norwich (Bl. iv., p. 78)' 

Grenehow (Norwich Deeds, p. 87) 

Greenhoe Hundred 

Gorthowe in Freethorpe 

Greenhow Hill in Gowthorpe (at Cringleford 

in 1529) 
Grimeshoe Hundred 
Gronenhowe-on-the-Hill (washed away off 

Bacton) 
Guneho near Bromholm (Bl. xi., p. 22) 
Haddiscoe 

Howe (Bl. viii., p. 26) 
Hymmyngshow Field in Thetford, 1720 
Howe Hill in Upper vSheringham 
How or Hoe Hill near Ludham 
How Hill near Trowse Bridge (Hudson i., p. 323) 
How Hill in Beachamwell 
How Hill in Holkham Park 
Howhill Field at Great Field at Mileham (Carth, 

ii., p. 402) 
How Hill, Northwold 
Hoe's Manor in Shelfhanger 
Howe near Norwich 
Howe, or Hoe near Dereham 
Hoe Hill near Calthorpe 
Howe Pasture near Wymondham 
How Pits near Blakeney 
Howland Plantation near Rainham 
Humbriggesho in 12 Ed. III. (Dashwood's Seals 

Pl. 9) 
Kyppehow in Wereham (Bryant's Clackclose) 
Lampjythowe in Thetford in 1338 
Langho in Bacton 
Linghowe (Burnham Court Rolls) 
lyimpenhoe 
Manneshowe in Paston (No. 858 in Dugdale's 

Charters of St. Benet's) 
Marrow Hill at Baimer 
Mill Hoe near Thurgarton 
Muckle Howe (Burnham Court Rolls) 
Pillow Green near East Bilney 
Pirnhow Hall, Hindringham 
Pirsehow near Ditchingham 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 7 

Popenhoe in Walsoken (Bl. ix., p. 125) 

Pristow Green near Tibenham 

Row How Hill in Roughton 

Sallows 

Scales How in South Lynn (Bl. viii., p. 542, and 

Pat. Roll, Richard III.) 
Scarrow Bridge near Calthorpe 
Scottow 
Sennowe 

Sparrow (Sparhoe) Hill near Morston 
Sparrow Hills in Merton 
Stanhoe near Colney (Bl. v., p. 4) 
Stanhoe 

Sunderwood Howe 
Thohowe in Paston 

Wylderhowe (See St. Benet's Charters, No. 85o> 
Thurningho (Close Roll, 1286) 

Holm. 

Asardesholm near Potter Heigham (Dug. Mon. 

v., p. 70) 
Asketel Holm (see inq. p.m. of Aylmer de 

Valence) 
Barilholm in Ludham (Charter Rolls, 1235) 
Beaumondes Holm in Great Ringstead, 22 Rich. 

II. — (Ministers Accounts, pp. 360-1) 
Bisshoppis Holm in Great Cressingham 
Blaventysholm near Reedham in 22 Edw. IV. 

(Harl. Ch. 417. F. of F. 31 Henry VI., Fine^ 

Cal., p. 426) 
Brakeholm in Bromholm, Chanters (Dug. Mon. 

v., p. 59) 
Brereholm near Bacton (18 Ed. II., Cal., p. 313) 
Bromholm Abbey 
Brotherholme Marsh in 1767 
Burnham probably Burnholm. There is a 

Bjorneholm in Denmark and also a Dypdale,. 

and there are Scaldshead Hills in Burnham. 
Catsholm in Methwold 
Coldholm is a marsh near the junction of the 

Thurne and Ant 
Coldham Hall is probably a corruption of the 

same name 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 

Cowholm, sites of both Norwich Cathedral and 
St. Benet's Abbey 

Crosholm in prato de Len (Fines, Rich. I.) 

Destholm Marsh in Strumpshaw (Bl. vii., p. 225) 

Dodholm in Flegg (Bl. iii., p. 477), probably in 
Winterton (see Norris's Happing, p. 47) 

Dritholm (Fines, No. 1313) 

Earlham originally Earlholm 

Earsham Church said to be within a Danish 
camp, if so, possibly was once Earsholme 

Flatholm in Hellesdon (Bl. x., p. 427) 

Foldholm — salt marsh on Breydon Water 

Foulholm, or Fugilholm (St. Benet's Chart, No. 
860) 

Foulholm (Fines Mich, 36 Eliz., p. 525) 

Frysseholm near Burnham Deegdale (Ancient 
Charters, A 553) 

Frotholm in Halvergate 

Fulholm Manor in Burgh in Flegg (Norris Char- 
ters, D 81 f) 

Geilholm (Bromholm Charters, Dugdale) 

Girteholm in Freethorpe 

Gortesholme near North Walsham 

Greneholm in Great Cressingham 

Holme- by- the-Sea 

Holme Hale 

Holm, St. Benet's Abbey at 

Holme, or Welholme Chapel in Tharston (Bl. 
v., p. 392) 

Holmes on Brunstead Marshes 

Holm Common near Honing 

Holm Hill in Tharston (Bl. v., p. 306) 

Holme, Little near Methwold (Vict. Hist., Ro- 
man, p. 297) 

Holme Marsh in Rushall (Bl. iv., p. 512) 

Hogholm, Gresholm, Perholm, said to be low- 
lying tracts by Candler (Norf. Arch, ii., p. 
61) but no localities given 

Holme next Runcton 

Kevesholm Meadow Marsh (Index to Norf. Top. 
p. 171) 

Kineholm (Feet of Fines, 10 Rich. I., No, 272) 

Lambholme in Freethorpe 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOI.K. 9 

lyokholme in Bawburgh (Bl. ii., p. 392) 

Mao^ors Holmes in Thetford, 1554 

Rough Holme in Gressenhall (Bl. ix., p. 515) 

Runcton Holme 

Riinham originally Runholm (asserted by the late 

Rev E. Gillett) 
Ravensholm in Hardingham (Bl, x., p. 225 and 

F. of F., p. 105) 
Rowholme Marsh in Wheatacre (Inq. p.m. 5 Hy. 

v., vol. iv., p. 30) 
Saylholm, old name for Sileham (Bl. v., p. 333) 
Skeetholni Marsh on Brqydon Water 
Slevesholm Priory otherwise Sleesham (Index 

N.Top., p. 27) 
Strodeholm Marsh in Wheatacre Burgh (Bl. iv., 

P- 512) 
Thtrholm (Rnrnham Court Rolls) 
Thornholm in Eccles (Bl. ix., p. 296) 
Totesholm in Feltwell (Bl. ii., p. 189) 
Welholme in Tharston (Bl. v., p. 306) 

Hope or Hoop. 

Walhop, a lost village in West Norfolk. See 

Close Roll 1214, m. tq 
Weybourne Hope 

Howet See ante under Howe 

Nab at Burgh Margaret 
In Wayland Wood (Norf. Arch, ix., pp. 311, 

327-8) 
Wunestunes Nab (Fines 133) 

Ness. 

Foulness by Cromer 

Maltby Ness, a lost village near Cromer. See 

Close Rolls, 1310, p. 191 
Ness, >*a lost village near Winterton (Bl. xi., p. 

T99) 
Ness, a lost village near Cromer? 
Rackness Hospital in South Acre. (Dug. Mon. 

vi., p. 169) 
St. Edmund's Ness (Close Roll, 1326, Cal. p. 613) 
Skateness near Blakeney 



10 SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOI^K. 

Winterton Ness 

Blakeney is said to be a corruption of Black- 
ness 

Repps. 

North Repps Hundred 
South Repps Hundred 
Repps St. Peter 
Repps by Bastwick 

Scald. 

Scaldshead Hills in Bum ham 
Scald Hill in Bawburgh 

Sco. (See Munford, p. loi). 
Esco, a hamlet to Martham 
Haddiscoe 

Lascoe Plantation in Colney 
Sco Ruston 
Sco, lost village near Hemsby (Norris, p. ii8) 

Sett. 

Forncett 

Heryngsett Manor g Ply. VII. \lnq. p.m. 916) 

Hethersett 

Letheringsett 

Stradsett 

Tattcrsett 

Watersett Manor in Bexwell (Bl.) 

Watlingsett — the old name for North part of Diss 

Whissonsett (Scandinavian cross found at) 

Stead is sometimes taken as a Danish affix. 

Strand. 

Overstrand 

Ovstrond Bridge at North Walsham (Court Rolb 

30 H,y., VIII.) 
Sidestrand 

Sty (See Munford p. 87) 
Berchenstie (Early Fines) 
Corpusty 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. il 

Didlestie (Early Fines) 

Grenestie (Early Fines) 

Hiimstie (Early Fines) 

Medelesties (Early Fines) 

Pcddersty, a path in Saxthorpc (Lothian MS.) 

Peddersty and Saltersby in Beachamwpll 

Sidesternstie (Early Fines) 

Thevestye way in Thetford 

Weymersty in Thetford 



Thorpe. 

Aileswithorpe now Gayton Thorpe 

Algarsthorpe 

Algarsthorpe Chapel in Melton All Saints (Bl. v., 

pp. 17-23) 
Alethorpe 

Appethorpe, Mitford, D.D.B. 
Applethorpe, Forehoe, D.D.B. 
Ashwellthorpe 
Baconsthoipe 
Baconsthorpe — old name for Besthorpe (Bl. i., 

p. 496) 
Bagthorpe 

Bansthorpe, a hamlet of Attleboro (Bl. i., p. 526) 
Banthorpe Hall near Flordon 
Battlesthorpe by Stiffkey (Bodl. Charters, p. 184) 

Old name for Battledore 
Besthorpe 
Bowthorpe 

Broomsthorpe or Brunsthorp (Early Fines) 
Burhthorpe belonged to Carrow Abbey, 1291 
Burnham Thorpe formerly Brunthorpe 
Bythesthorp in Mileham (Rot. Hun. i., p. 435) 
Calthorpe 

Cleythorpe, old name for Cley 
Cockthorpe 
Crownthorpe 

Custhorpe or Scnlthorpe p. 382 
Dikethorpe in Windham (Bl. ii., p. 499) 
Easthorpe Manor in West Harling 
Edingthorpe 



12 SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 

Eidesthorpe near Mundesley (Inq. p.m. of John 

de Warrenne, 21 Ed. III., No. 50) 
Elvesthorpe said to be D.D.B. for Ingoldisthorpe 
Felthorpe 

Flockthorpe in Wymondham (Bl. ii., p. 499) 
• Folthorpe Manor in Hardingham 
Fosthorpe near Foston (Mundford p. 107) 
Fortesthorp now in Shouldham Thorpe 
Fotesthorp D.D.B. for Foston 
Freethorpe 

Fnndalethorp (see Norwich Deeds ii., p. 57) 
Galthorpe, or Glocesthorpe, Manor in Swardeston 

Bl. v., p. 50) 
Garboisthorpe (F. of F., Rich. I., No. 175) 
Gatesthorpe or Gasthorpe 

Geysthorpe — hamlet of Guist (Bl. viii., p. 216) 
Gayton Thorpe 

Gloresthorp or Gowthorp (Bl. v., p. 39) 
Glosthorpe 
Gowthorpe or Glocesthorp in Intwood (Bl. v., 

P- 39) 
Gunthorpe 
Haddiscoe Thorpe 
Halthorpe by Ingham 
Hecham Thorpe (Early Fines) 
HerUngthorpe, Hackford Hall (Bl. i., p. 300) 

or Harlingthorpe or West Thorpe 
f Hidichesthorpe (Bl. i., p. 724) 

Honingham Thorpe 
Ingoldisthorpe 

Kinesthorpe, a hamlet of Buxton (Bl. vi., p. 445) 
Kinesthorpe Kynburle (F. of F., Ed. I., No. 212) 
Markesthorp, a lost coast village in North 

Erpingham (N.E. p. 11 1, and in 7 Ed. I., 

see Appx. to Rye's Index) 
Morningthorpe 
Pensthorpe near Cley 
Pockthorpe by Norwich 
Pockthorpe by Lyng (Ordnance Map) 
Pockthorpe by Wramplingham 
Pokethorpe in Filby (Early Fines) 
Pockthorpe in Foulsham (Ordnance Map) 
Pockthorpe in Thompson 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOI.K. 13. 

Pockthorpe in Barnhani Broom 
Pothorpe by Horningtoft 
Rainthorpe Hall 
Saxthorpe 
Sculthorpe 

Shoiildham Thorpe or Garbridge Thorp 
Swainsthorpe 

Stivekey Thorp (Fines 18 Hy. III., No. 540) 
Themelthorpe 
Thorpe Abbotts 
,, Fakenham 
,, by Haddiscoe * 

Market 
,, by Norwich 
., Parva 
,, in Cossey (Rumburgh Priory (Suff. 

Deeds) 
,, near Shipdham 
,, Heath, Wretham 
Thorpland by Wallington 

,, by South Runcton 
,, by Fakenham 
,, by Runcton 
Tokethorp Manor, Norwich (Bl. iv., p. 45) 
? same as Tokethorp in Wramplingham 
(D.D.B., p. 202) 
Tolthorpe Manor, Norwich (Bio. iv., p. 45) 
Tunethorp (Early Fines) 
Twyvelthorp (Close Roll, 8 Ed. II.) 
Westhorp — old name for Hackford Hall 

Bl. i., p. 169) 
Westhorpe. See Harlingthorpe 
Wretham Thorpe, now Wretham 
Wyresthorp in Mileham (Carthew i., p. 169) 

Thwaite. 

Thwaite in South Erpingham 
Thwaite near Loddon 
Thwaite in Paston 
Thwayt Green near Brissingham 

Toft. 

Bircham Tofts 
Buckenham Tofts 



M SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 

Caltofts in Redenhall 
Horningtoft 

Humbletoft, Thomas, of Gressenhall 
Rockland Tofts 
Toft Monks 
Toftrees 

Tofts, West, in Grimshoe 
Toft Close, Thetford 
Toftwood, East Dereham 
Toft Common near Westfield 
Wyptoft an alias for Wallington (Bryant's 
Clackclose, p. 362) 

Wick or Wich. 

Ashwick 

Barwick 

Bastwick, Repps-cum- 

Berwick Manor in Barmer (Bl. vii., p. 3) 

Bolwick Hall, Marsham 

Browick in Wymondham 

By wick Park in Swanton Morley (Bl. x., p. 55) 

Cakewick in Wyndham (N. Tour, p. 362) 

Case wick 

Chiswick Farm near Wallington 

Cranwich 

Crostwick or Crostwight (2) 

Dudwick in Buxton 

Frowick Court (Bl. i., p. 520) 

Guestwick 

Godwick 

Gunneswyk in Paston (St. Benet's Chart., p. 858) 

Hallwick in Thetford 

Hardwick (Bl. v., p. 218) 

Hard wick by Lynn (Bl. viii., p. 479) 

Hardwick Street in Banham 

Kenwick Hall near Clenchwarton 

Keswick by Bacton 

Keswick by Norwich 

Keswick m near Tilney (Pat. 1374) 

North wick, Thetford 

Norwich 

Oxwick 

Postwick 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 15 

Postwick, by Yarmouth 

Sidersterne Wyk in Tattersett (N.A.M. i., p. 61) 

Wattonwick in Watton 

Westwick 

Westwick, in Norwich 

Westwick, Thetford 

Wick Corner on the Little Ouse, below Thetford 

Wicken Green near Castle Acre 

Wicken Green near Tittleshall 

(With the above read : Wickhampton, Wick- 
lewood, Wickmere.) 
Woodbastwick 



Othen Scandinavian Names. 

Baldeswell, for Balderswell 

Grime's Graves, Weeting 

Grime's Manor House in Snitterton 

Tommy and Mary Grims Hole in Mulbarton 

Grimmer Hole, Close, and Breck, all in Wretham 

Grimmer Plumstead 

Grimston 

Guthlac Stows Cell 

Hammer Hill, Hamfer Hois, compare with Ham- 

merfest and the London Hammersmith 
Kettleston 

Kettle Brigg in Wretham 
Kettleshall in Gunton 
Kettle Hill Plantation near Blakeney 
Kettles Hill near Roughton 
Ketteringham 
Heathenman Street, Thetford. Heathen Men or 

Danes ? 
Thurketeliard (unidentified, an early place in 

Rye's Deeds) 

Breydon Water may be a corruption from the 
Danish Bredeholm. It cannot come from 
''don," a hill, as there are no hills near 
Wensum ma^ be the Danish Wensholm 
Bure may come from the river which gives a 
name to the Danish Burfjord. The water- 
man's name for the Bure is the "North 
River," and the North River is a term used 
in the Sagas 



i6 SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOLK. 

Eelsfoot. There is an Eelsfoot on the south side 
of Nordfjord in Norway. 



Barwick 


Lammas 


Filby 


Ludham 


Gissing 


Lopham 


Gresham 


Vng 


Elsing 


Ryburgh 


Horsey 


Sail 


Horstead 


Saxthorpe 


Kelling 


Thnrsford, this has been 



said to be Thorsford or Thorsfjord 

and a list of others (set out on pp. 4-5 of my* 'Popular 
History.") 

Ramsgate 

Ravensgate, an old road across Household (See 

N. and N.A.S., xv., p. 91) 
Ringstead. See Barrett Ringstead 
Ringland Hills 

Skelding (Scalding?) Hills, Sheringham 
Skottesmuth 

Skotteswent in Burnham 
St. Olave's Parish in Norwich. — A Scandinavian 

or Runic stone found there 
Thurspitt in Burnham 
Thurstan, Beeston 

Armstrong viii., p. 325 gives a ridiculous engraving of 
a ''Danish figure" drawing a sword, supposed to be the 
boss of a shield. What is this? 

For identities of, the names of places still in Denmark 
with other Norfolk villages see my ''Popular History of 
Norfolk," p. 13. They are 



Norfolk. 


Denmark. 


Acre 


(Aaker) 


Aldborough 


(Aldbjergh) 


Barmer 




Bracondale 


(Bregnedale) 


Brandon 


(Branden) 


Brunstead 




Carrow 


(Karhow) 


Colby 


(Kolby) 


Corpusty 


(Kurrup) 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOI.K. 



17 



Norfolk. 


Denmark. 


Cromer 


(Kroemmer) 


Bailing 


(Delling) 


Dereham 


(Darum) 


Elsing 


(Helsing) 


Felbrigg 


(Felborg) 


Forehoe 


(Fcerhoi) 


Filby 


(Fielby) 


Gallow 


(Galthoe) 


Gissing 


(Gesing) 


Greenhoe 


(Groenhoei) 


Honing 


(Hanning) 


Haddiscoe 


(Hedeskov) 


Hilgay 


(Hilgehave) 


Holme 


(Several in Denmark) 


Holt 


(Holt) 


Horning 


(Horning) 


Horsqy 


(Horse) 


Horstead 


(Horsted) 


Humbleyard 


(Humblegaarde) 


Irstead 


(Eirested) 


Kelling 


(Kyelling) 


Kimberley 


(Kimmerlve) 


Kirby 


(Kirby) 


Knapton 


(Knappa) 


Lammas 


(Lammes) 


Langham 


(Langholm) 


Loddon 


(Lodne) 


Lopham 


(Lopholm) 


Ivudham 


(Luddeholm) 


Lyng 


(Lyng) 


Lynn originally 
Len 


j (Laen) 


Marshland 


(Marslund) 


Meels by 


(Miels) 


Burnham 




Pulham 


(Polleholm) 


Rising 


(Risinge) 


Ryburgh 


(Ryborg) 


Salhouse 


(Sahlhuus) 


Sail 


(vSal) 


Saxthorpe 


(Saxthorp) 


Scarning 


(Skjerring) 



i8 SCANDINAVIAN NAMES IN NORFOI^K. 



Norfolk. 
Snoring 
Sustead 
Saham 

Stratton Straw- 
less 
Thorpe 

Tivetshall pro- 
nounced Titsel 
Toft 

Westwick 
Windham 
Worsted 



Denmark. 
(Snorren) 
(Southsted) 
(Soholm) 
(Strsedn Strelev) 

(Thorp) many 
(Tidsel) 

(Toft) many 
(Vestervik) 
(Vindeholm) 
(Crested) 



Besides which I consider as still existing, many which 
occur up the rivers, e.g., up the North river and its tribu- 
taries, Filby, Ludham, Brunstead, Salhouse, Horning, Ir- 
stead, Lammas, Corpusty,* and up the Yare, Carrow. 

I also gavd on page 7 the names of 53 villages of whicii 
the first parts occur in present Danish villages, e.g., Ran- 
worth, Hoveton, Horstead. 

Two maps, one showing the distribution of what I think 
are Scandinavian names and another of the place names 
ending in ingham and ington will be found on the same work 
opposite pp. 8 and 12. On p. 20 is a list of Norfolk sur- 
names which seem to me clearly Danish, which I repeat here 
on p. 2. 

Yet Dutt in his "Highways and Byways in East Anglia" 
(1901), p. 98, actually says : "There are few traces in Nor- 
folk and Suffolk of the permanent settlement of the old 
Viking raiders." (!) 



19 

HUNDRED COURTS, 
MOTEHILLS 

AND 

TOOTHILLS in NORFOLK. 



It is noteworthy that the names of not less than nine 
and probably twelve of our thirty- two Norfolk Hundreds 
are distinctly Danish, viz : — 

Flegg, East and West Holt 



Forehoe 


Humbleyard 


Callow 


Loddon 


Greenhoe 


Lopham 


Grimshoe 


and possibly Blofield, once 



Blofeld and Freebridge, which reads to me Frithbrigg, and 
this seems to suggest a Danish Territorial Division of the 
County as they all either bear Danish affixes or their whole 
names are from Denmark. 

Under the title of "Open-air Hundred Courts in Nor- 
folk" Sir G. ly. Gomme contributed a paper to the 
Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological 
Society, vol ix., p. 62, but it was entirely founded on 
Blomefield's * 'Norfolk," and did not even give all the infor- 
mation to be found in that work, and indeed there is no 
trace that he made any independent investigation as to 
Norfolk. Even this compilation was not careful for he 
omitted Blomefield's notes on the Hundreds of Guiltcross, 
Henstead and Shropham. It was, however, useful in drawing 
attention to the subject and bringing Blomefield's notes to- 
gether, but altogether omits any reference to the earliest 
instance in our records of the County Hundred Court or 
Shire Mote which is given in Blomefield iv., p. 28, under the 
date of T 150, and which was held in the garden of the Bishop 
of Noi^wich before William Martel, the King's Steward 
3ishop Turb, and most of the Barons of Norfolk and Suffolk 



20 HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE H1L1.S 

The detached tower near the Erpingham Gate may have 
been used for the bell of the Folk Mote just as a similar 
tower outside St. Paul's, London, was used. The "bell 
house," I have little doubt, was the origin of the surname 
*'de Belhouse," sometime Atte Bellhouse — a bearer whereof 
passed his surname on to the manor of Belhouse in Essex. 

I point oat later that St. Martin-at-Palace Gates on the 
South side of the river, was sometimes called St. Martin-at- 
Montem, and may have been the site of a Mote hill and 
that on the North side of the river, St. Miles-at-Plea was 
also called "at-Motstow," and will venture a suggestion that 
they were the assembly places of two communities and that 
the name "at-Plea" may show that the Hundred Courts 
were held here, which is more likely than that it referred 
to the Bishop's Pleas> being held here, just as Hungate used 
to be said to be derived from the Bishop's hounds ! 

I have an idea too that Mark Knights showed some- 
where that "Tome" was a synonym for mote which would 
give yet another possible derivation for Tombland. The 
old derivation of Tombland from Churchyard has recently 
had a fillip given to it by the discovery of several skeletons 
found when digging the foundations for the elegant pottery 
urinal outside the Ethelbert Gate, of which it can only be 
said that it is less offensive than that which used to stand 
outside the Erpingham Gate. I am rapidly coming to the 
conclusion that the Tombland is not as I once suggested the 
toom or empty land, but timberlond, the place where tim- 
ber was stacked. He also (p. 60) would like us to believe 
that Rede (council) has been corrupted into Red, and has 
given the name to the Red well, and that the Red Mount at 
Lynn was also the site of a Mote Hill. This was, however, 
just about the time he began to suffer from the Shakespeare- 
Bacon sickness, and I do not think need be taken seriously. 

I have here set out notes of all I can find in print and 
elsewhere on Norfolk Hundred Courts, and have made some 
suggestions as to the sites of those which have not yet 
been fixed. 

""Blofiald Hundred. (Bl. viii., p. 208) 

No suggestion has hitherto been made as to the 
site, but possibly the earthworks known 'as Gargytt 

* It is noteworthy that there is no other place of the name in 
England, and I shall be grateful if anyone can say if th^re is one iu 
Scandinavia, 



IN NORFOI.K. 21 

Hills, once on Household Heath, described by me in 
the Transactions of the N. and N. A. S., xv"i., p. 91, 
may be the place. It is noteworthy they are just South 
of *'Ravcnsgate," which may be Danish, or the site of 
the Bishop's Manor House at Thorpe may have been 
the place. 

"^Brothercross Hundred. (61. vii., p. 2.) 

Blomefield suggests that the site was at the ford 

over the river, at Burnham, but gives no reason for 

his views. 

Either Burrow Dykes by South Creake or Cobb 

Hill at Burnham Westgate would seem to be equally 

likely. 

Cawston Hundred. This occurs in 1322. 
(Pat. Cal., p. 347). 

fClaokclose Hundred. (Bl. viii., p. 168. Norf. 
Tour, p. 66). 

The Court is said to have been held at the Hill at 
Stradsett. 

Clavering Hundred. (Bl. viii., p. i.) 

No suggestion is made. 

The name of the Hundred is sometimes spelt 
J'Knavering." Either Howe or Stockton would seem 
a probable site, or Totenhill in Wormegay (vii., p. 494). 



iDepwade Hundred. (Bl. v., p. 123). 

No suggestion has been made except that Dr. Jes- 
sopp thought the place known as ''Old Groggrams" 
which stood in the open field, Forncett, might be the 
site. 

*Oiice held with Gallow — for " Brother " wliich I apprehend has 
no reference to fraternity see Brotherick (in Cumberland), and 
Brothertou (in Yorks). Also Brotherholme Marsh, 1769. 

tFor " Clack " see Clackheaton (Yorks), Clacton (Essex), Claxton 
(Durham, Yorks, and Norfolk), and Claxby (Lincoln). 

XVox " Dep " see Deptford (2) Essex, 



22 HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE HILI.S 

Either Long Stratton where there is a Moated 
House or Tasburgh would suit, and in 1465, "hill 
diggers" opened Nonmete Hill in Forncett which 
would also be a possible site. 



''^Diss Hundred. (61. i., p. 2). 

No suggestion is made. 

The Hundred was once called Winfarthing Hun- 
dred. Poss bly Winfarthing itself (i., p. 185) or Bres- 
singham which had a moated "Swan Hill" (p. 50) was 
the site of the Mote Hill. 

fEansham Hundred. (61. vi., p. 347). 

The Court is said to have been held at "the Camp" 
near the Church wh^re there is a small mound and a 
large court. 

Erpingham Hundred (North). (61. vi i., p. 71). 

Court said to have been held at Gunby Gate, pos- 
sibly near Gunton. In Norf. and Norwich N. and Q., 
ii., p. 213, says the Gallows were held at Starts Hegg. 

Erpingham Hundred (South). (61. vi., p. 240. 

Norf. Tour, p. I73). 

It is suggested that the Hundred Court was held 
at the Park Gate, at Cawston, and "Warepound money" 
is mentioned. 

It will be remembered that the "Hundred of Caw- 
ston" is mentioned in 1322, see Patent Calendar, p. 347. 

6ut for the positive statement in 61omefield I 
should have thought that 6urgh, by Aylsham, with its 
moated site, would have been more probable. 

60th of these sites are on the line of Purdy's 
"Roman" road (see Proc. Pre-Historic Society of East 
Anglia, vol. i., p. 472). 

*For Diss see Dissington (Northumberland). 
tFor " Ears " see Karswick (Yorks). 



IN NORFOLlt. 2% 

Eynsford Hundred. (Bl. viii., p. 182). 

The Court is said to have been held at Reepham. 

This is also on the site of Purdy's "Roman" road 
mentioned under Erpingham (South). 

Misc. Inq., ii., No. 927, refers to Eynesford Hun- 
dred in Kent. There is a place of that name in Kent 
but not a Hundred. 

Flegg Hundred (East and West). MBl. xi., 
p. 144). 
No suggestion is made by Blomefield. 

Possibly Burgh St. Mary, which has a circular 
foundation, described in Norf. Arch., v., p. 296, may 
be the site. 

*Fonehoe Hundreds (Bl. ii., p. 532. Norf. Tour, 

p. 362). 

The Moat Hill is said to be the large circular 
mound close to Browick or Bra wick Hall, near Wymond- 
ham. It is close to the railway on the other side. 

IFreebridge Hundred. (Bl. viii., p. 327 and ix., 

p. I). 

Blomefield says (viii., p. 419) the Court was held 
at Flitcham Burgh, wh^ere there is a tumulus on the 
road to Shernbourne. This was called Frothbrigg Hun- 
dred in 1348 (Misc. Inq., ii., No. 2072). Beloe (Norf. 
Arch., xii., p. 311) calls it Frida Bridge and says there 
is a Friday Bridge at Elm. 

I think it comes from Frithbridge, but that later 
(3 Eliz.) the Queen's bailiff held a Court under an oak 
at Gay wood, near Lynn, and was called Gay wood Oak 
Fee, and that after this it was held at an oak at Wig- 
genhall St. Germans, called Fitton Oak (p. 328). 

Freebridge itself used to be called Frithbregg, 
which sounds Danish. 

•For " Fore " see Forsbrigg (Staff.), and Foremark (Derby.). 

+For " Free '* see Fresby (Leicester), Freeford (Staff.), Freethorpe 
(Norfolk). 



24 HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE HILLS 

Gal low Hundl*adi {Once held with Brothercross). 
(Bl. vii., p. I. Norf. Tour, p. 503, and see Close 
Roll 1373). 

Blomefield says that in 5 Henry IV. the Court was 
held at Fakenham Dam, which place might probably 
have been called Gallestow (p. 2). 

And that later (3-10 Eliz.) at Longfield Stones a 
place I cannot now identify. 

The place name Galehoges occurred at Dunton 
Field (Norf. Arch., ix., p. 66). 



^Gneenhoe Hundred (North). (Bl. ix., p. 264. 
Norf. Tour, p. 561). 

Blomefield says the Court was held at Wareham. 
There is said to be a "square" Danish fort (?) called 
Rayfield, but excavations in 19 14 showed Roman re- 
mains and nothing to suggest that it was Danish. 

The N. Tour says that it was held on the farm of 
"Honeld Crondale" as Parkin suggests, but I can 
neither trace the reference nor the place. 

Warboro' Hill is in this Hundred and so is, Burrow 
Farm at Binham, and either Wighton Heath or Crabbe 
Castle would be likely sites. For "Warepound Money" 
see ante South Erpingham. 



Greenhoe Hundred (South). (Bl. vi., p. i). 

Blomefield seems to suggest the site by stating that 
"even to the last century the Hundred Court was held 
on the Greenhills or Tumuli, lying by the London road 
to Swaffham. 

There is a place called "Barrows" in this Hundred. 

A Greenhoe Hill is in Gowthorpe where the Hun- 
dred Court of Humbleyard was said to have been held. 

*For ■' Greeu " see Grecnstead (Essex) and Greenwich (Kent). 
As to the latter it should be noted that it is next to Deptford the 
root word of which also occurs here in Depwade. 



IN NORFOLK. 25 

Gnimshoe Hundred. (Bl. ii., p. 148). 

Blomefield suggests the camp 2 miles east of 
Weeting, which is "Grime's Graves." The large 
mound in the eastern part of the plantation was 
opened by the "Pre-Historic Society of East Anglia,'* 
in 1914, and proved to be a barrow. 

Guiltcposs Hundred. (Bl. i., p. 213). 

Blomefield says thei Hundred Court Was always 
held at Kenninghall (p. 214) and this seems very prob- 
able, but the 'sitd may be where the Peddar's Way 
crosses the Attleborough-Thetford turnpike. 

^Happing Hundred. (Bl. ix., p. 287). 

The Court was probably at Happisburgh where it 
is sa d there was a Roman fort. (Arch, xxiii., p. 362)- 
Or at the Devil's Ditch or Mound at Way ford Bridge. 

IHenstead Hundred. (Bl. v., p. 417). 

Blomefield thinks the Court was at Caistor. 

Holt Hundred. (Bl. ix., p. 536). 

Blomefield has no suggestion, but Ingmote H 11 
near Holt seems very suggestive, and so does Kettle 
Hill near Blakeney and Burgh. 

tHumbleyard Hundred. (Bl. v., p. i., N. Tour,, 
p. 394)- 

It is said that the Court used to be held at Swar- 
deston which used to be called Hombleyard or the 
Low Yard. It has been suggested that the Court was 
at Greenhow Hill at Gunthorpe. 

Humble is a Danish place name. 

*For " H«p " see Happisburgh (Norfolk), Hapten. 

fFor " Hen " see Henstead (Suffolk). 

tFor " Hum " see Huuibleton (Yorks), and Hunibletoft in 
Gresseuhall (Norfolk), though the last may only mean a hop yard. 
It is, however, unlikely that hops should give their name to a whole 
Hundred. 



26 HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE HILLS 

Launditch Hundred. (BL ix., p. 456, N. Tour, 
p. 818). 

Blomefield says the Hundred Court was held 
where the "Launditch" crossed the Norwich road. 

Mileham would seem more likely, or Tuttle Hill 
near Stanfield — or even Swanton Morley where there 
is a moated site — again there is a Pilates Hill in Swar- 
deston (Bl. v., p. 50). 



Loddon Hundred. (Bl. x., p. 152). 

No suggestion, but why not Loddon itself which 
is an old place. 

I find no other Loddon in England, but there is a 
Lodne in Denmark. 



""Mitford Hundred. (Bl. x., p. 194, N. Tour, 

p. 852). 

The Court was held at Streteman's Dike in the 
North Street of East Dereham (Bl. x., p. 195). For 
plan, see Tom Martin's Notes, vi., p. 57. 

Afterwards at Brock or Brook Pit (p. 195). 

tShropham Hundred. (Bl. i., p. 360 and 521, 

and Norf. Tour, ii., p. 917). 

Blomejfield (p. 521) says that at the time of Eliza- 
beth, the general Hundred Court was held at Ketel- 
brigge. East Wretham, but on the previous page he 
says the Warepound or Frowick Court was the superior 
Court and was held by a tree which was on a hill in 
the street, and was commonly called the Scolding Court 
as it had to be over by sunrise or the whole rents were 
forfeited for the year. It may be that it was originally 
held at Tutt's Hill in Kilverstone (i., p. 54), but Mr. 
Clarke tdls me this is in Rushford in the Guiltcross 
Hundred. 

*For " Mil " see Mitford (Northumberland). 
fFor " Shrop " see Shropshire. 



IN NORFOI.K. 27 

""Smithdon Hundred. (Bl. x., p. 285). 

The Court is said to be held at the "Barrow" (which 
is diked round), in Bircham Magna (p. 286). 

Afterwards at Frenge (Fring), 36 Henry VIII. 

There are also 
Barrow Common, 
Howe Hill by Brancaster. 

Totts or Tofts Hill and th^e barrow at Bircham 
Magna may be the same as suggested by Blomefield. 

tTavenham Hundred. (Bl. x., p. 398 and 416). 

Blomefield says the Court was at Frettenham Hill 
(Bl. X., p. 398). The tumulus on the Common, which 
was called * 'Court Hill," was examined by the Norfolk 
and Norwich Archaeological Society in 1855, but no 
ancient remains were found (see Trans, vi., p. 357), 
and the high ground on the left of the Norwich main 
road at the corner of the way to Horsford would be 
more likely. This, however, is not on the Common. 

The great mound of Horsford Castle would to my 
mind fit Blomefield's description better (see plans in 
N. and N. A. S. Proc. xv., p. 290), the more especially 
as no trace of stone work has even been found at the 
site of the so-called "Castle." 

tTunstead Hundred. (BL xi., p. 79). 

No suggestion has been made, but I think that 
Swan Hill at Smallburgh is very likely to have been 
the place. 

Miss Hoare points out that the Hundred Court was 
at Bradfield Common near the church. See appx. 
and map on p. 34.. 

Tunstead itself is probably Danish, as the prefix 
Tuns occurs in Denmark. 

*For "Smith " see Smeethcote (Shropshire), Suiethwick (Staflf.). 
tFor *' Tav " see Tavistock (Devon). 

JFor " Tun " see Tunstall (Norfolk, Suffolk, and Yorkshire), 
-8 in all. 



28 HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE HlLEvS 

"^Walsham Hundred. (Bl. xi., p. 90). 

Blomefield is silent. 

The site may have been at Reedham, Upton or 
Acle. 

fWayland Hundred. (Bl. ii., p. 271). 

No suggestion hitherto. 

Probably at Saham Toney. 

Mr. Clarke thinks it may have been in Way land 
Wood. 

Other places which may have been Motes or Hundred 
Hills : 

Bail Hill, Wymondham. 
Bonnetts Moat ( ?) near Tivetshall. 

Hare Hill — Causes held at, by the Abbot of Holm^ 
1284 (Bodleian Chart, p. 245). 

Ingmote, near Holt. 

Ueete Hill or Thirboro' Hill in Stockton. 

Moothill in Hunstanton (Beloe). 

Mote Hill in Wymondham (Norf. Arch, ix., p. 63). 

Motstow. 

St. Miles at Plea was called at Motstow (Bl. iv.^ 

p. 84), see Kirkpatrick (p. 45), who places it 

on the Redwell Plain. 

St. Martin Coslany or at Oak is said by Kirkpat- 
rick (p. 113) to have had a Tote Hill, and he 
cites at p. 72 a way called Tothille but thinks 
it came from the recent personal name of Tut 
or Toyt. Mr. Hudson, however, in his note 
to p. 69 points out that St. Martin del Hille 
was St. Martin at Palace and queries whether 
there was not once another Tothill here. I 
thing he is right for I find it called St. Martin 
ad Montem in 1451 (Regr. Wilby, fo. 109). He 
also (ii., P- 246) refers to St. Martin's, Tut- 
hill, 1397- 

*For ** Wal " see Walcote (Norfolk), Walslam, North and South 
(Norfolk), Walsoken, Wallingtou. Walpole and Walthorpe (Norfolk)^ 
and Walsham (Snffolk). 

tFor " Way " see Wayford (Somerset). 



IN NORFOLK. 29 

Ravenshill, 8 miles from Langley (Blickling MSS.) 

Swanhill (moated) at Smallburgh. 

Swan Hill at Sail. 

Swan's lyodge near Kelling. 

Swan Hill at Hautbois. 

Swan Bill at Cressingham (i., p. 49). 

Swan Hill in Coltishall ) , ,, .^1 
Swanton Morley I ^^^^ ^^^h moats. 

Swannington 

Scolding Court (see under Shropham ante). 

Toot and Tut Hills. 

Tottenhill in Wormegay (vii., p. 494)- 

Tutt's Hill in Kilverstone (Shropham (Hundred, 

i., p. 54). Another in Snarehill in Rushford 

(Guiltcross Hundred). 
Tuttle Hill in Stanfield (Launditch Hundred, x., 

p. 5). 
Tuthill Plantation, Walsingham. 
Totty's Hill, south of Antingham. 
Tutt Hill, said to be the top of Thetford Moor. 
Toothill near Beachamwell. 
Warepound or Frowick Court in Shropham (see 

also p. 21). 
Warepound money at Cawston (see under South 

Erpingham) and see Warborough Hill. 



30 HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE HILLS 

TUMULI AND EARTHWORKS, ETC. 

Aldeby — earthwork between the church (and the bottom. 
Several large irregular hollow places with large banks. 
Martin calls them the Mardells. 

Aldeburgh — Tumulus at East Aldeburgh (i., p. 89). 

Binham 

Broome (Norf. Arch., x., p. 206 and 388). 

Coltishall 

Eaton 

Eccles 

Frettenham 

Gorgate Hill — Mousehold 

Grime's Graves. 

Kempston. 

Rainham (South) — Norman (?) barrow. 

Swaffham Heath. 



STRANGE SOUNDING PLACE NAMES. 



31 



I will here add a list of some strange sounding place 



names in Norfolk. 

ntioch in the new field of 
:Tiln^. 

ylmerton, Streeky 
aron Duel Stone by Topcroft 
anow Common near Brancaster 
arrow Hills near Lexham 
arrow by Swaffham Heath 
arrowford old name for Barford 
artholomew Hills by 

Southacre 

attledore Hill near Stiffkey 
edlam Barn near North 

Elmham 

eggars Bush near Breccles 
lood Hills near W. Somerton 
lood's Dale Lane near Barton 
loody Furlong, Caistor 
ruggs Grave near Horsford 
umstone Hill, Upwell 
unn's Bank 

unn's Hill near N. Walsham 
utter Hills near 

Nortwich 

amp Corner near Bawburgh 
andlestick Hill near 

Letheringsett 
ats Pits by Kelling 
atts Corner by Smallburgh 
atwood near Aylsham 
hristian Hill bv Babingley 
link Hill by Caister 
link Hill by Yarham 
rabbe's Castle, Wighton 
radle Hill near Stanhoe 
reaking Hill near Bittering 
utthurst Plantation near 

^lerton 
►arrow Wood Earthworks in 

Denton 
•eadman's Grove near 

Edingthorpe 



Devil's Bottom, East Winch 
Devil's Ditch, Launditch, 

Weeting, East Harling, 

Beechamwell, Loddon 
Devil's Dyke, Launditch, 

Weeting, East Harling, 

Beechamwell, Loddon 
Devil's Punchbowl, Croxton 
Devil's Back near Edingthorpe- 
Drunken Grove, Massingham 
Duffins Dale, Norwich 
Fiddler's Dyke, Shelf anger 
Foulmere, near Wretham 
Frankfort, near Sloley 
Frosts Hall in N. Walsham, 

Mattishall, Northrepps, 

Mundesley 
Gallow 
Galley 

Gannoch Hill, Lynn 
Gannoch Hill, Norwich 
Hell Lane, near Bunwell 
Hellsmere Hole at Carleton 

Forehoe 
Hcllhoughton 

Hezicus Lane, near Salthouse 
Hobs Hole near Pensthorpe 
Holland Hills near Barnham 

Broom 
Honey Beck near Thornage 
Honeypot Hill, Ashwicken 
Honeypot Wood, Wendling 
Honeypot Hill near Shropham 
Hungry Hill near N. Repps 
Hungry, Swanton 
Ingmote Hill near Holt 
Jedlowes Mills Farm near 

Aldburgh 
Justice Green by Wheatacre 
Kettlebridge, compare 

Ketteringham 



32 



STRANGE SOUNDING PI.ACH NxVMES. 



Klint, said to be Dissmere 
Leech Pit near Stiffkey 
Lizard Common, Wymondham 
Mousehold Heath 
Household Closes in Hockering 
Mousehold Farm near Ryston 
Musewell Mere near Ryburgh 
Marrow Hill by Barmer 
Marrowbone Hill near 

Heigham 
Paradise, Carrow 
Paradise, Lynn 
Paradise, Stradsett 
Peddars Way, Winch, called 

Peddars Wynch | 

Pigs Grave, Swanton Novers | 
Pigs Pond, Tatterford i 

Pilates Hill in Swardeston ' 

Pockthorpe, besides the Norwich | 

there are places in Foulsham, | 

Lyng and Wramplingham. 
Poppy lot Farm, Feltwell i 

Rodbrig Lane, Shipdham 
Rutica Barn near W. Bailing | 
Saddlebow in Wiggenhall | 

Scotesmuth ship of (in Pat. Roll, j 

1414) 
Shepmansgate (?) near 

Dersingham 
Shuck's Lane 



Shucksforth, Saham Toney 
Skinniford near Horning 
Snare Hill near Rushford 
Summer Green near Pulham 
Summerfield, otherwise 

Southmere 
Sunderland near Southmere 
Sammerhill near Heacham 
Summerwood near Heacham 
Sumerberge (?) in 

Mitford Hundred 
Tollernape in Gateley 
V/alsey Hill, Cley 
Washingford Mill near 

Burgh Apton 
? Wasingford in Loddon 

Hundred (D.D.B., p. 203) 
Waterwell town in Marshland 

(Pat. Cal., 1346) perhaps 

Well by Gayton 
Wardeford Bridge, perhaps War- 
ford or Weyford Bridge 
Wenkell Ditch, Palling 
Wiffle Green, Melton 
Woeful Green, Skeyton 
Wolsey Hamlet near Diss 
Wreck Hills Camp, so-called 

(Norf. Arch., xxiii., p. 361). 
Woodhouse at Thursford 
Woodhouse at Silfield 



HUNDRED COURTS AND MOTE HILLS 33 

APPENDIX TO THE HUNDRED COURTS. 

The most fruitful result of the publication of my first 
part was tho discovery of the site of the Hundred Hill of 
Tunstead Hundred by Miss Christabel Hoare, which 
appeared in my last part. 

I had conjectured (p. 22) that the Swan Hill at Small- 
burgh was very likely to have been the site, but Miss Hoare 
wrote to me 

'*In searching the Gimingham Manor Records at 
Giinton, I recently came across two presentments which 
seem to fix its site in the parish of Bradfield, on the 
very extreme boundary of Tunstead and ^orth Erping- 
ham Hundreds. This seems curious, but no doubt you 
know of similar cases. I will give you the extract 
verbatim, so that you can judge of its value. [There 
are two exactly similar entries, the one dated April, the 
other August, 16 14]. 

The Gimingham Inquest amerce " Edmund 
Barret Thomas Capuurn Wylltn Prymrose 
[and many others] that [they] doe wrong- 
luUy fetch within their Parish of Antingham 
the Comou of Thorpe Called Oldfid heath 
Contrary to the decree mad in the Duchie 
Camb [chamber] in H 8, lAg coinon in 
Bradfild on the South syd of Tunsied 
Hundred hill and also other seurall grounds 
in the same towne eastward of the said hill, 
we payne them no more so to do upon 
payue of Xs of evey of them." 

*'I have not had an opportunity to go to Bradfield 
since coming across the above extract, but I have no 
doubt that you will be able to identify the site of the 
Hundred Hill, which I conjecture must have been 
somewhere in the vicinity of Bradfield Church, which 
you will remember stands on what may well be called 
a hill in Norfolk ! The small patch of Common on 
the North of the road from Bradfield Church to 
Swafield may well be the remnant of Bradfield Common 
which as stated above lay East and South of the Hill, 
and the rest of it probably stretched South of the 
Church and away down towards the Barge Inn." 

I at once inspected the site and found a very respect- 
able little hill commanding a good view of the valley of the 
Ant, as shown in the map on the next page. 



34 




35 
HAND LIST OF REFERENCES 

TO ALIv PRINTED ACCOUNTS OF 

ROMAN CAMPS 

AND 

REMAINS IN NORFOLK 



In Mr. Haverfield's excellent treatise in the Victoria 
County History, he discards and disproves many alleged 
Roman remains, but includes 136 instances referred to in 
the following index which is chiefly to his work. The 
plain references in brackets () are to his treatise. 

To these. I think I may say I have added about 72 
more. They are those to which I have prefixed an *. The 
new places are Bayfield, Cranwich, Grimston, Walton, War- 
borough Hill, Warham Camp, Wereham. 

I am glad to see that he shows that most of the alleged 
maps of the Roman roads are purely conjectural, and are more 
likely to mislead than to help the student. Recent inves- 
tigators like Mr. Tingeiy, Mr. Purdy, and the Rev. Dr. 
Astleyl have not only been more cautious in their state- 
ments, but have paid their readers the compliment of 
giving their reasons for their conclusions. Mr. W. G. 
Clarke doubts if the tumuli at Coltishall, Ditchingham, 
Earsham, and Wighton, and the torques found at Ashill, 
Foulsham, Foxley, and Heigham arc Roman, and thinks 
them earlier. 

I must take this opportunity of again thanking Mr W- 
G. Clarke, who is rapidly becoming the main-spring of Nor- 
folk antiquarian research, for many helpful suggestions 
and additions to this list. I have also to thank Mr.F. 
Leney, of the Castle Museum, for many corrections and 
additions. 

X Dr. Astley himself is not infallible, as when he speaks of the 
Peddars way beginning at Brancaster and ending at Brandon. 
("Memorials of old Norfolk," p. 85). 



36 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOJvK. 

Not being a specialist, but an indexer only of the sub- 
ject, I will only point out what seems to me a very curious 
fact, viz., that starting up the Bure valley we find a very 
large proportion of Roman finds or alleged finds, viz., at 

Horning Rippon Hall North Walsham 

Haynford Marsham Colby 

Coltishall Oxnead Baconsthorpe 

Hautbois Burgh-by-AylshamBessingham 

iVIayton Bridges Felmingham Wood Bailing 

Buxton Scottow 

The map given here shows on a reduced scale all the 
sites of Roman or alleged Roman finds in the County, and 
adds several not mentioned in Mr. Haverfield's map in the 
Victoria Counl^y History of Norfolk. It has been compiled 
by Mr. D. Payler. 

The most important are the sites at Burgh-by-Aylsham, 
the importance of which he does not seem to realise, and 
the Roman villa at Grimston found since his work was pub- 
lished. His map also omits, perhaps intentionally, to 
mark West Dereham, Saham Toney, Ovington, Carbrooke, 
and Mileham. 

With his remarks as to alleged and conjectural Roman 
roads I cannot agree too strongly; the early gueswork 
maps are most misleading. Personally I doubt all, except 
the main road through Scole and Long Stratton, Tasburgh, 
and Caistor to Norwich, and should rather think the main 
road north of Norwich ran out the lines of the Holt road to 
Burgh, though there were probably bye- ways to the cluster 
of places on the upper Bure, which form the thickest and 
closest group of Roman finds (ii) in the County. 

I cannot think that either the straight Peddars Way or 
the equally straight west and east trackway which cuts the 
Roman cemetery at Brampton and would seem to cross the 
Peddars Way near Massingham were ever Roman roads in 
the generally recognised sense, and expect they were only 
straigt military tracks or guide ways. It will be noticed 
that the few Roman finds near the Peddars Way are nearly 
all some distance off it to the west, which makes it prob- 
able that Mr. Haverfield's conjecture that the military road 
ran to Hunstanton and not along the Peddars Way is correct. 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. ^^ 

Again after leaving Oxnead, the Roman finds on the 
west and east road are not on the direct road to Wayford 
Bridge which is supposed to be its objective, but parallel 
with it and to its south. 

This may be accounted for by the fact that the direct 
line would at that time be covered by the wide waters of 
the Broad country. Both of these trackways may in fact 
only have served as guide ways and not for heavy traffic. 

Before leaving the subject of the Roman occupation I 
would remind my readers that, some years ago, it was 
pointed out in the local press that Norwich, Lynn and 
Bury St. Edmund's were so placed that they formed an 
equilateral triangle of 42 miles, thereby suggesting the 
county had been at one time surveyed by triangulation. 

Measuring as carefully as I could I was unable to find 
that this was the case as far as the mileage was concerned^ 
but it is none the less the fact that the three towns do prac- 
tically form an equilateral triangle, and what is more strange 
is that Thetford, Old Lynn, Norwich and Warburgh Hill 
form a perfect square, and that if we bisect the angle at 
Warburgh Hill and continue it south it goes through 
Thetford Xo Bury St. Edmund's. 

Then if we construct a triangle from Lynn to Bury St. 
Edmund's, having Thetf()rd at its base and then construct 
a similar triangle on the east end of the square from War- 
burgh, its hypothenuse goes straight to the great Roman 
Castle at Burgh, and passes through Burgh by Aylsham,, 
Brampton, Buxton, and other villages where Roman re- 
mains have been found. 

These, however, are merely rough guesses, and it ma\^ 
be as well if someone with more skill and patience than T 
possess will test these and see if there is anything in them. 

Meanwhile, I must point out that Mr. P. A. Nash, late 
of the City Surveyor's Office, who had much experience of 
Roman work at Bath, has recently, to my mind, proved tc 
demonstration that Norwich, with its old boundary and 
crosses, was laid out by Roman surveyors, and Mr. W. G. 



38 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI.K. 

Clarke, who has also gone into his proofs, is also thoroughly 
satisfied with them. In all, therefore, his contention that 
Norwich is the Venta Icenorum is correct. The difficulty 
made that so few Roman remains have as yet been found 
at Norwich is of no great value for we do not know that the 
Venta Incenorum was ever a very important city, and the 
boundaries and crosses may only have .been laid out for 
future use if the city had ever developed. 

What is more important is that he is able to show that 
a prolongation of one of his triangles takes us to the great 
camp at Caister, and that a similar prolongation from the 
camp at Tasburgh cuts a line of churches which are in a 
perfectly straight line. 

This work is so minute and has been so carefully done 
that it must satisfy any impartial person. At present, I 
understand, he has not tested his methods and work, be- 
yond the neighbourhood of Norwich, but it is much to be 
desired that he should do so and say if the Bury, Norwich 
and Lynn triangle theory has anything in it. Personally, 
I am not equal to do so, even if it would be fair to him as 
he is really the discoverer of the idea, for the older sugges- 
tion is very vague and may not hold w^ater after all. 

The possible results of a triangulation in the way 
he has begun are very great and may put an end to all the 
wild guessing as to the Iter Antoninus, which has amused 
bygone antiquaries. 

If , as I understand, our local Society (the N. and N.A.S., 
or F.T.B.) does not care to take the matter up, surely the 
Royal Society of Antiquaries might help him to do so, or 
enough money might be subscribed locally to pay for pub- 
lication. 



APPIvETON. Coin of Antoninus Pius {Blomefield viii., p. 
331) and Norfolk Tour. 

[It is a very curious coincidence that Mr. Haverfield, 
who rightly pointed out that I had erred in the first 
entry of my former list of Roman antiquities, should 
now omit this which should have been the first 
entr>y^ in his own list! 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 39 

ASHILL. Villa and pottery in a well (pp. 294-5), illus- 
trated with plan. 
Mr. Haverfield considers that the remains at Saham 

Tomy may he connected with these. 
*Torque found here {Norf. Arch, v., p. ig;^) and re- 
mains at Highwood and Ashill {id. viii., p. 2g^). 
ATTLEBOROUGH. Disc of burnt clay with inscription. 
Probably not Roman (p. 313). 

BACONSTHORPE. Possibly villa (p. 297). Hoard of 

coins (p. 307). Brck at (p. 297). 

See Miss Hogg's account in N. & N.A.S., ix., p. 2$. 
*B ACTON. Gold Roman coin found at {Norf. Archy. i., 

P' 193)- 

BAWDESWElvIv HEATH. See Sparham. 

^BAYFIELD. Urn found at (Norwich Museum, No. 335). 

BEACHAMWELIv. Hoard (1846), 8zc., Samian saucer 
(p. 313), et loc. cit. 

BEESTON REGIS. Supposed traces of ironworkings (p. 
313), et loc cit. 

BERGH APTON. Both Venta Icenorum and Gariano- 
num have been located here, and Roman occupation 
asserted. Now doubted (p. 313). 

BESSINGHAM. Pottery and bones found 1870 (p. 313), 
et loc cit. 

BICKERSTONE. Alleged Roman bricks; ''very doubt- 
ful" (p. 314), et loc cit. 

BHvIvINGFORD. Alleged road and urns; ''very doubtful'* 
(p. 314). 

BRADESTON (now Brundall). Q.v., urns containing ashes 
were found when "Chapel Field" was removed in 1820 
(White's Norf., p. 185, and see Daveney in East Anglian 
i., p. 134). • 

BRAMPTON. Samian ware and urns (Sir Thos. Browne*s 
find in 1667, p. 314, et loc cit). 

Dawson Turner's alleged finds here disproved . 

BRANCASTER. Fourth century fort (p. 304), et seq. 
Plans, coins, etc. Gold ring inscribed "Viva in Deo" 
(Norwich Museum, No. 403). 
'"^Fragments of pottery {Norwich Museum, No. 33). 



40 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 

BRANDON. Bronze vase (p. 314). Mr. Clarke thinks 
this is the Suffolk Brandon. 

*BRESSINGHAM. Roman remains in {see Martin's 
Church Notes). 

BRETTENHAM. Blomefield {i., p. 441) puts Comhret- 
onium here. Mr. Haverfield makes no comment on 
it, and it seems only one of Blomefield' s wild guesses. 
Roman remains at (p. 314). Blomefield says Roman 
coin including a Vespasian and some urns. 
*A fish shaped bronze lamp figured in Proceedings of 
Pre-historic Society of East Anglia, v. i., p. 381. 

BRUNDALL. Dwellings, etc> (p. 297)- Pottery, etc. 
(see ante Bradeston). 

Mr. Haverfield does not men,tion the alleged Roman 
dock, set out in Br Beverley's pamphlet. 

BUCKENHAM [Feri^]. Roman pottery found in making 
railway, and see N. Archy. iv., p. 313. 
*Mr Haverfield's reference to Harrod's alleged earth- 
works {Norf. Arch, xi., p. isg) should he to New 
Buckenham. 

BURGH. As it may well he thought some of the Norfolk 
place names ending with ''hurgh" may point to a 
Roman occupation I append a list of them, and also of 
the ''boroughs." Some of the Vst, Tashurgh and Small- 
hurgh certainly have traces of Roman ivork [see also 
Caistor). 

Alburgh Ickhurgh 

Aldhorough Mamshuries in Felthorpe 

Attlehorough Micklehurgh Hill 

Bawhurgh N arbor ough 

Burgh by Aylsham Oxhorgh 

,, Apton Oxhurgh Hill in 

,, in Flegg Letheringsett 

,, by. Hingham Ry burgh 
Burgh a\ lost village in Wol- Smallburgh 

ferton {Bio. ix., p. igs) Burgh Common, 
Burgh Parva Swanton Morley 

,, South Tashurgh 

DJcklehurgh Wheatacre Burgh 

Happisburgh Whiyiburgh 
Hilhorous^h 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI.K. 41 

BURGH OR BORO'. 

Blackhoro' Hill near Ruberry Hill near Blakeney 
Middleton Thirnboro' Hill near Stockton 

Greenboro' Hill Warboro' Hill 

Ingleboro' Hill Warboro' or Welbury Hill, 

Muckleburgh Hill Stiffkey, g miles off the other, 

near Weybourne 
BURGH-BY-AYLSHAM. Pottery; ''pelrhaps waifs from 
the adjoining parish of Buxton" (p. 314). 
Dawson Turner's urn found at, 1845. 
'^Recen,t finds (Norf. Antiq. Mis. N.S. i., p. 103). 

*BURGH ST. MARGARET. Alleged Roman site (Archa. 
xxxii., p. 364). 

BUXTON. Pottery on the edge of Brampton parish (p. 
314). [This is one of Sir Thomas Browne's finds]. 
[Confusion has arisen by the great find at Stow Heath, 
said to have been at Buxton, also see Rippon Hall.^ 

CAISTER-BY-NORWICH. Probable town at (p. 314)- 
[Plan, photograph, and full description, pp. 288-Q, 
290-3]. 

[Roman bath] (?) ill., p. 2gi. 

*y4 gold torque was recently dug up at. Tom Martin 
gives a very rough sketch of the walls and plans 
ini ihis MSS. See also Markshall, which is only 
a mile off. 

CAISTER-BY- YARMOUTH. 'Terhaps village," (p. 293; 
Roman find of coins, etc. (p. 294). 
'^Kiln and urns {Norf. Archy. iv., p. 352). 

CALDECOT. * 'Romano-British burials alleged" (Norf. 
Archy. xii,, p. 20). 

CARBROOKE. The ''Roman" spearheads are pre-Roman 
bronze (p. 314). 

CARLETON ST. PETER. Hoard of coins (p. 314)- 

CASTLEACRE. Haverfield doubts for the reasons he 
gives {pp. 314-5) that the earthworks thought by Blome- 
field. Bloom an,d Fox to be Roman are so, and that the 
Roman coins he mentions were found there. 

CASTLE RISING. Haverfield also doubts {p. 314) if ^he 
edrthworks called Roman by Woodward and Harrod are 
so, and points out that the coin of Constantine referred 
to by Spelman was only found in the neighbourhood. 



42 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 

C ASTON. Two hoards of coins found here in 1816 and 
1820 (p. 315), and see Archceologia, xx, p. 577. 

CATTON. Cinerary urn and bronze tweezers. 

CAWSTON. Bronze coin found here, 1728 (p. 315) quoting 
Blomefield, vi., p. 268. 
"^Bronze ornament found at (Norwich Museum, No. 439) 

COCKLE Y CLEY. Third brass of Constantine. 

*COLBY. Goddard Johnson (2 pt., No. i^), says that on 
Colby Common, about 1814, a labourer found a Roman 
urn embedded in the marl, and used as a pitcher till 
broken. {MS. in Norwich Public Library). 

COLNEY. The ''Roman" pMtery iyi the Museum is thought 
hy, Mr. Haverfield not to be Roman. But see Norf. 
Archy., vi., p. 216. 

''Roman urne'' at Dawson Turner's (see Blomefield) 

COLTISHALL. Fibulae and coins found here (p. 316), et 
loc cit. 

^Earthwork mound on the hill between Coltishall and 
Hautbois. 

*CRANWICH. Roman mortarium found by W. G. Clarke. 

CREAKE, NORTH. Two urns with 2000 brasses of Con- 
stantine (p. 316), et loc cit. 

CREAKE, SOUTH. Roman remains {Arch, xiv., p. 444). 

CROWNTHORPE. Silver and thumb ring (p. 316); quot- 
ing British Archaeological Journal, vii., p. 159 and xi.,. 
p. 79. 

DENVER. Alleged fen walls and bronze statuette of Mars 
(p. 316). 

'^Causeway mentioned by Dugdale opened (see Norf.. 
Archy. i'i., p. 425). 

DEREHAM, WEST. Roman pottery and hand bricks (p. 

316). 
DISS. Coins near rectory (p. 316). 

DITCHINGHAM. Coins, hoards and urns (p. 316). 
^Tumuli at {Norf. Arch, v., p. 361). 

DOWNHAM HEATH. Second brass coin in Norwich 
Museum (p. 316). Mr. W. G. Clarke thinks this was 
found in Suffolk. 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 43 

DRAYTON. ''Doubtful traces" (p. 316). 

"^Roman urns, etc. {Norf. Arch., ii., p. ^64, Hi., p. 416 
and vi., p. 379). 

^DUNBURY HII.LS in Gillingham. Mr. R. Dashwood, 
the present owner, tells me this should be Dunburgh^ 
that is a Roman locality. 

DUNHAM. Pottery and coins, Roman tiles ( ?) and enam- 
elled brooch (p. 316). 

*DUNSTON HALL. Two urns found at. Norf. Tour 

{P- 752). 

EARSHAM. ''Alleged pottery" (p. 316). 

"^Earthworks at {Norf. Arch., vi., p. 154 and ix., p. 67). 
Roman urns at {Norf. Arch., iv., No. 44'j , p. 313). 

EASTON. Large hoard (?) found in urn (p. 316). 

"^Pottery, e\tc. {Norf. Arch., iv., p. 352), and see Nor- 
wich Museum, No. 447. 

EATON by Norwich. Samian pottery before 1850 (p. 316). 
"^{Norf. Arch., iv., p. 352). 
^Urn, found at {Norwich Museum, No 336). 
"^Pottery with maker's stamp — Marcelus, 2nd century 
A.D. {Norwich Museum, No. 36J). 

ECCLES. "Roman coins alleged" (p. 316). 

EDINGTHORPE. Urns found on heath {Norf. Arch., Hi.,, 
p. 427). 

ELMHAM, NORTH. Mound (p. 396). 

T. Martin says: Hoard of Silver coins at, many Roman 
silver {p. 316), with buried urns, etc., a quantity. 
Haverfield {p. 316) doubts Roman coins, and 
thinks the cemetet^y wholly post Roman,. A fine 
urn illustrated {p. 312). He {Haverfield) thinks 
British urn,, though ii bears a Roman inscription, 
which he thinks may have been added. 

*See many more impressions of Roman coins, sketches 
of Roman ashes in lachrymatories, urns and piles 
of hypocaust, Tom Martin. 

EMNETH. Hoard of coins near a supposed Roman road 
(p. 317). 



44 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI.K. 

PElvMINGHAM. Hoard of bronzes and pottery (p. 307 

and 317, illustrated p. 309). 

[Th's is the celebrated find at Stow Heath, often mis- 
called Buxton Heath.] 

Much that was found here has been removed to Small- 
burgh Hall by the Jickling family. 

FElvTWELIv. Hoard of coins of early middle period (p. 

317)- 

"^Silver denarius of Sabina, found in 1874; now in the 
possession of Mr. A. D. Euren. 

FINCHAM. Coins found at (p. 317). 

*FOUI,SHAM. Torque found at {Norf. Arch., v., p. igs), 

*FOXIvEY. Gold torques found at {Arch. Ass. Journfll ii, 
P- 349)- 

FRAMINGHAM. "Roman tiles in Chuch.'' Requires 

confirmation (p. 317), 

FRENZE or FRINGE. ''Perhaps Villa" (p. 297-3); (a 
pavement broken up, p. 297). [See Archy. xxiii., p. 

370]. 

*GAYTON THORPE. Tom Martin mentions what he 
calls a Roman road with vallum {Norf. Arch., xvi., p. 
2ig). 

GELDESTON. Internment near the Waveney (see figs. 
29-30, p. 318). Urn found in rebuilding chancel, now 
in British Museum. "Mr. C. H. Read tells me il is 
not Roman." 

"^Glass urn found at {Norf. Arch, iv., p. 314), Norwich 
Museum, No. 347. Bracelet found at {Exc, i., p. 
19)- 
GILLINGHAM. Roman coin (p. 318). 
GLANDFORD. See Bayfield. 

*GREENBOROUGH HII.L [near Weybourne]. Roman 
pottery at {Norf. Arch., iv., p. 35s) ■ 

*GRIMSTON. Roman villa discovered at, in 1905, by Br. 
Philip Laver, Colchester, and described by Henry haver, 
Esq., F.S.A. {Norf. Arch, xvi., p. 2ig, with views and 
plates). 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 45 

HAPPISBURGH. Mr. Haverfield doubts the "Roman 
fort" said to have been here (Archy. xxiii., p. 90, the 
conjectural maps), and I agree with him, except they 
are possible as coming from Smallburgh. 

HARLING, EAST. Urns found in Church are mediaeval 

(p. 318). 

*yi quSrn of Niedermendig lava, found here by W. G, 

Clarke {Prehist. Soc. Trans., i., p. 4go). 

*HAUTBOIS. Roman tile in Church. 

HAYNFORD. Bronze statuette (fig. 31, p. 318). 

HEDENHAM. Kiln and wasters, burial urn (p. 318). (Set- 
Norwich Museum, No. .348). 
*Roman Iziln at {Norf. Arch, vi., p. I4g). 

HEIGHAM. Interments and urns (p. 318). Coins, etc. 
(Norf. Arch., vi., p. 386). 
"^Ringed torque at (Norf. Arch, vi., p. 213), urn at {v.^ 

P-386). 
*Roman lead (?) coffin at {Norf Arch, vi., p. 213). 

HEMPNALL. Burials east of Church; "very doubtful if 
Roman." (p. 318). 

Remains of a Roman road {Arch, xxiii., p. 211) Ancient 
cemetery {Norf. Arch, v., p. 4g). 

HETHERSETT. Bronze statuette of Hercules; alleged 
Roman road; "very doubtful." (p. 318). 

*HOCKWOLD. Roman urns with coins found at Black- 
dyke {Prehist. Soc. Trans:, i., p. 433); "Edward Elliot 
had this and gave it to the Boileaus." 

HOIvKHAM. Alleged Roman remains at the Rabbit farm; 
"probably not Roman" (p. 318). 

*HORNING. Church Broom Hill, near was supposed to 
be a Roman camp {Norf. Arch, xi., p. 35). 

HORNINGTOFT. Alleged Roman earthworks and road; 
"no reason to think either Roman" (p. 318). 

HORSEY. Coin of Vespasian. An "urn probably not 
Roman" (p. 318). 

IJOWE. Gold coin of Nero. Brick and flanged tile in 

Church wall (p. 318). 
HUNSTANTON. Three Roman urns found 1879 (p. 318) 



46 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 

ICKBURGH. 'Talbot and Gale put Iciani here, others 
Sitomagus." '*No Roman remains have ever been 
found" (p. 313, also seej). 44). 
*Tom Martin (vol. iii.) says a large close, called Hall 

Close, on the high ground has some aspect of a 

Roman fortification. 

INGOLDISTHORPE. Coins found (p. 318). (See Bio. 

X., p. 339)- 
*KEMPST0N, Martin, vol Hi., thinks the name is derived 

from camp, and says that on the summit of a hill are 

several large intrenchments and hollow places much too 

wide to have been used as a ditch. 

KESWICK. Roman coin dug up at the Hall — illus. by 
M.A.T. in Dawson Turner's copy of Blomeiield. 

*KETTERINGHAM. Tumulus with Roman pottery on 
road from Carleton to Hethersett {Norf. Tour, p. 85). 

KIMBERIvEY. I^argish fibula (p. 318). See Norwich 
Museum, No. 421. 

KIRBY CANE. Jewelled buckle, spearhead and swords 
(Harrod's Directory, 1868). Kiln potterv, etc. (p. 
318) at "Pewter Hill.' 

Lakenheath mentioned on p. 318 is in Suffolk not Norfolk, 

I,YNFORD. Urns found, 1720, 1735, and 1859 (p. 319). 
(Bio. ii., p. 263). 

ivYNG. Pottery and coin (p. 319). 

IvYNN. Mr. Haverfie/ld says that Richard's story that 

Catus Decianus founded Lvnn is an "old wild fancy" 

(p. 318). 

*A coin of Hadrian found in cutting n.ew channel of Ouse 
(P- 31S). 
^MARKSHAI^L, near CAISTOR. Supposed Roman land- 

ing-place (illus.) hy H.J.D. Astley (Norf. Anti. Mis. 

(N.S.), i., p. 39). Burial urns (Arch, cxviii., p. 436). 

The burial urns were found 181 6 and illus. by M.A.T. 
in Dawson Turner's illustrated copy of Blomefield. 

MARSHAM. Black urn, etc. (p. 319), (Norf. Arch, iii., p. 
418) and other urns by the Roman road. This is Purdy's 
Roman road. 

*MAYTON BRIDGE. Urns found at {Norf. Arch, ii., p. 

426). 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 47 

MELTON MAGNA. Hoard found 1887. Alleged Roman 
tiles in Church window splays * 'requires confirmation" 
(p. 319). 

METHWOLD. Roman dwelling (p. 297). 

MILEHAM. Silver dish (illustrated, p. 310). Haverfield 
doubts if the earthworks are Roman (p. 319). 

MORLEY ST. BOTOLPH. Hoard of bronze coins (p. 319) 

MOUSEHOLD. {Norf, Arch.viU., p. 324). 

*NARBOROUGH. Bones and armour found by Sir C. 
Spelman, see Blomefield (vi., p. 148). 

NARFORD. Haverfield (p. 319) would like more evidence 
"as to alleged Roman bricks, and Sir Andrew Foun- 
taine's Roman vase of brass dug up in the Hall yard.'* 
*Tom Martin saw it, and gives a sketch in vol Hi, when 

he calls it a brazen cantharus holding about a 

Winchester quart. 
*Roman remains found at Narford {Blomefield vi.,'p. 

236). 

NEWTON BY CASTLEACRE. Roman coins (p. 319). 

NORTHWOLD. Republican coin found at (p. 319). 

NORWICH (i) St. Augustine's Gates— Bronze lamp found 
before 1760 (p. 319). 

(2) Market Place and Dove Lane — ^Urns and 
coins under Chamberlin's warehouse, in 1852. (See 
Norwich Museum, No. 37c). 

(3) London Street, at Caley's — Urns^ etc., and 
said to be Roman, in 1862. (Norf. Arch, vi., p. 384). 

(4) Near Cathedral— Pottery. (Also see Norf. 
Archy. xi., pp. 319, 365). 

(5) Ber Street— Alleged Roman pottery (p. 319)- 
Urn, ist century, A.D. {Norwich Museum, No. 3^9)-^ 

(6) Thorpe Hamlet — Roman coins, etc., in 
grounds of the Rev. W. Frost. He lived up Telegraph 
Lane, the first house on the right. (Norf. Arch, vi., 

(7) Thorpe Hamlet— Pottery m the grounds ot 
Mr. Farrar Ranson ^p. 321). Ranson's house abutted 
on Colman Rd., about a quarter of a mile from the last. 

(8) Mousehold— "near the back of Cookers house." 



48 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 

To these instances of Roman occupation, given by Mr. 
Haverfield, may he added [see also Eaton) — 

*(/) The alleged Roman, bridge at Fyebridge {see 

Norf. Arch, xiii., p.-22g). 
*(2) The coin of Julia, wife of Septimus Severus, 

found at St. Leonard's Priory in 1828.- The 

alleged nariow red bricks in some of the ruins 

there and the ''Black Well," which has been 

thought of Roman work. 
*(3) Copper minim of Carinus, A.D. 283, recently 

found at the ''Nest/' {see Norf. Anti. Mis, 

{N.S.) p. 95). 
*(4) The recent pottery found in and near the Castle 

Mound. See Mr. Tench's paper on Norwich 

Castle Mound {Norf. Archy. xvii., p. 44). 
*(5) The coin of Antonius Pius, A.D. 140-143, found 

in St. Faith's Lane {Norwich Museum, Nos.. 
58-12). 
*(6) Two Roman coins found in excavating Water- 

works {Norf. An.ti. Mis., 2nd ser., p. g8). 
*(7) Urn found at Stone Hills, Dereham Road 

{Norwich Museum, No. 371). 
{8) Fibula found at St. Giles {Norwich Museum,. 

No. 424). 
(9) On the ordn,ance map above the Unthank Road 
nearly opposite "Eaton Villa," bronze mould and 
spearhead found 1S46 {see ante). 
{10) (d) Gold coins found in 1854 opposite St. John, 

Sepulchre, but these en the large scale ordnance 

map are said to be of the reign of Edward IV. 

ORMESBY. Hoard of alleged Roman small bronze orna- 
ments in the Fitch Room. (Norwich Museum, No. 447) 
*'The date of the objects is open to question" (p. 320). 

OVINGTON. The alleged Roman camp and pottery 
doubted by Mr. Haverfield (p. 320). 
Martin gives plan of it, vol. Hi. 
*Roman. urns at {Norf. Archy. vH., p. 352). 

OXBURGH. Roman coins, etc. (p. 320). 

*T. Martin, vol. Hi., gives several sketches of spear heads 

and celts, but these are clearly not Roman. 
""'Danes' graves, Roman remains {Norf. Tour, p. 650). 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI^K., 49 

OXNEAD. Roman hoard of coins in an urn here (p. 320), 
[Probably part of the find of Sir Thomas Browne.] 
*A large brass of Antoninus found by me near the 
keeper's bridge near the Hall. 

PASTON. Bronze disc found at. N.A.M. (N.S.), p. 102. 

PENSTHORPE. Romano-British finds at, 1837, 1849 and 
1880. N.A.M. (N.S.), pp. 79-81 (urn illustrated). 

PORINGIvAND. Gold ring, etc. (pp. 311-320, illustrated 
P- 3ii)- 

POTTER HEIGH AM. ''Many potsherds and mounds of 
wood ashes" (p. 320). 

[But I expect it was a mediceval pottery which gave the. 
village its first name.] 

QUIDENHAM. Bronze coin found, 1723 (p. 320). 
^Remains (Blom. Norf. i., p. 337). 

REDENHALL. Roman pottery at Gawdy Hall (p. 320). 
[Norf. Archy. iv., p. 311]. 

REEDHAM. ''A permanent occupation here" (p. 298). 
*Coins found {Norf. Arch, iv., p. 135). Alleged Roman 
pharos {iv., p. 313). In Dawson Turner's copy of 
Blomefield. Coins of Claudius, Vespasian, Antoni' 
nus and Faustina. 

RIPPON HALL [Buxton]. (Norf. Arch, iii., p. 418). 

Roman urn at (p. 320). 

*''A plain Romano-British cup" found here, also Roman 
urns found on Roman road crossing Aylsham turn- 
pike {see Norf. Arch. Hi., p. 4^S), 

RUDHAM, EAST. ''Alleged hoard of coins" (p. 320). 
*/n 1799, Norf. Tour, {p. 553). 

RUSH WORTH. Roman urns found at {see Dawson Tur- 
ner's copy of Blomefield.) 

SAHAM TONY. Samian pottery and 3 pigs of lead, "as- 
sumed to be Roman " "These remains may be con- 
nected with the villa at Ashill" (p. 320). 
"^Roman flue at {Norf. Archy. vii., p. 340). 

SALTHOUSE "BROAD." Pottery found at: tumuli and 
earthworks {p. 304). 

This is on the North Coast and is not to be confused 
with Salhouse Broad. I know of no authority to 
call the coast locality a "broad." 



50 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI.K. 

SANTON. Fragments of Castor and Up church ware found 
by Mr. W . G. Clarke at eastern foot of Bromehill, not 
far from Caldecote {Norf. Anti. Mis., 2nd ser., pt, 3, p. 
98). 

*^ "Scandinavian'' brooch found at, by Rev. W. Green- 
well {Suff. Arch. Trans., 1870). 
"^Denarius of Vespasian found at, by W. G. Clarke. 

SCOLE. Coins, etc. Paved ford at (?) (p. 320). 

^Roman intermenfs at, plate showing weapons and tools 
(Prehistoric Soc. Trans., i., pp. 321-3). 

*SCOTTOW. Roman urn found at, in 1777, four hundred 
yards from Scott jw Hall. (Tom. Martin's note). 

SCULTHORPE. Samian pottery at (p. 320). 

*SEDGEFORD. Part of large glass bowl, human remains, 
sickle, fragments of mortaria and Samian ware at (Pre- 
historic Soc. Trans, ii., p. 56). Roman, and other re- 
mains found by H. Ingleby (N. Archy. xix., p. 117). 

SHADWELL. Urns, coins, etc. (p. 320). 
SMALLBURGH. ''The pottery, beads, etc., found here 

are post Roman" (p. 320). 

The Roman pottery at present in the Hall was moved 
here from Stow Heath. 
*SNETTISHAM. (Norf. Excursions, ii., p. 24). "Roman 

Chisels" [Hearne). A large quantity of Roman pottery 

found (Clarke). 

SOUTHER Y. Roman vessels and coins (p. 321). 

*SPARHAM. Tom Martin, vol. Hi., gives a plan of a place 
abutting the Lynn Road on Bawdeswell Heath, where 
certain bones were found, and refers to some old brazen 
armour, which might have caused than to turn green. 

SPORIvE. (?) Funeral urns, beads, spearheads and boss 
of a shield, illustrated in Dawson Turner's copy of 
Blomefield. 

STALHAM. Roman pottery at (p. 321). 
STONE, ETC. Stone Bridge, Wretha^n. 

Stone hill near Cromer. 

Stone hills near Heigham. 

Stonehouse Heath near Harling, 

Stony Hills plantation. 
Some of these may relate to paved Roman roads. 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 51 

STOW HEATH. The great barrcw at. Mr. Haverfield 
refers to this under Felmlngham, {p. 307). 

STRATTON, LONG. {Norf. Tour, p. in). Urns, coins, 
etc. (p. 321). 
*A Roman Consular denarius found 12 years ago. 

STRATTON STRAWLESS. Supposed to he a Roman 
street (Hearne). 

SWAFFHAM. Brooch or fibula, etc. (p. 321) [fig. No. 
33]. **The bronze handle of a bucket, presented to the 
British Museum by Greville Chester, seems to be a 
very late date and probably a 5th century import." 
(Haverfield, p. 321). 

TASBURGH. Martin " and Nash say the Church itself 

stands on a Roman fortification. 

''The earthwork here is pre-Roman (Haverfield p. 321). 

He, however, admits that the coin of some Antonim 
Emperor was found inside it. 

*[He omits the find of skulls near the Hall {see Norf. 
Ant. Misc. {N.S.), p. 79), and other Roman finds 
there, including a coin of Hadrian, {id). 

THARSTON. ''Coins of the lower Empire" (p. 321). 
''Perhaps an error for Thurton,.'' 

THETFORD. "Roman coins, recorded by Sir Thomas 
Browne, Blomefield and Tom Martin" (p. 321). 

"The lamp alleged to have been found in 1827 ^^i^- 
der the Red Mound ( ?) is said by the Curator of the 
Norwich Museum to have been brought from Carthage 
and presented by Stanley, Bishop of Norwich." 
*Roman coinsj found at (Eastern Counties Magazine i . , 
p. 177). 

THORPE HAMLET (p. 321). See under Norwich. 

THREXTON. Samian and other pottery and Roman coin 
in 1857 (pp. 321-2). Key, figured (at p. 298) 
'^Uncut Roman gem found in a barrow (Norf. Arch., 
iii., p. 122). 

THURTOy. Roman coins, presumably a hoard of "third 
brass" (p. 322). 

UPWELL FEN. Hoard in two urns in 1837 (p. 322). 

WALPOLE ST. ANDREW. Alleged aqueduct and bricks 
found about 1725. "Needs confirmation very much" 
(Haverfield, p. 322). 



52 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINvS IN NORFOLK. 

WALSH AM, NORTH. Roman remains found near 

(Archaeological Journal, i., p. 381). 

[This may relate to the F elniingham find (see Felming- 
a.m and Stow Heath.] 
WALSINGHAM, OLD. Xhe ''Roman" urns here are 

English" (Haverfield, p. 322). 

WALSOKEN. Two Roman coins found near the Roman 

bank (p. 322). 
WALTON. Third brass of Caius (p. 322). 

*WARBOROUGH OR WARBURY OR WELBURY HILL 
NEAR STIFFKEY. Alleged Roman camp at {Arch, 
xxiii., p. 363). 

*WARHAM CAMP. Roman remains found in 1914. {Sec 
Reports on Earthworks, 1915). 

WAYFORD BRIDGE. Lathe turned urns (p. 322). 
'^-Rofiian stirrup found in bed of river Ant in 190 j. 

WELLS. Hoard of bronze coins on shore (p. 322). 

WELNEY. Engraved pewter dish and vessels found 1864 
and 1863 (ilhistrated, p. 310). 
Hoard of coins 1718 (p. 322) 

*WEREHAM. Paierna found at {Norwich Museum, No. 
378). 

WESTON. Hoard of coins (p. 322). 

WEYBOURNE. Pottery and kiln at ''Salthouse Broad" 
(p. 322). 

WHEAT ACRE BURGH [Burgh St. Peter]. Roman occu- 
pation remains here doubted (p. 322). 

WIGHTON. Coins here (p. 322). 

"^Crahh's Castle {Bl. ix. p. 206; Norf. Tour, p. 61^). 

*WILTON. Coin of Heraclius and his son {Norf. Antiq.. 
Mis. Hi., p. 376). 

WITCHINGHAM. Roman remains 

^T'ont (?) or cistern of stone {Tom Martin's Notes). 

WOOD DALLING. Samian ware, cofhn, etc. (p. 322).. 
(See drawing in Dawson Turner's copy of Blomefield). 

*WRETHAM, WEST. Hoard of Roman coins in a pot,, 
full details from ''Norwich Mercury'' of 1760. Roman 
remains {Martin's Church Notes). "Found at Cork- 
mere." 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI.K. 53 

WYMONDHAM. Salmon conjectures this to be Sitomagus 

"but no Roman remains here" (p. 322) . 
-^YARMOUTH. Remarks on the Garianonmn of the 

Romans, by John Ives, 1774. 

"^Silver de^iarius of Anton.inus, A.D. 13^-161 {Norwich 
Museum, No. 103-1^1). 



Though it is by no means certain that the East to West 
trackway across Norfolk on which I read a paper before the 
Prehistoric Society on 23rd March, 19 14, is Roman I have 
thought it best to reprint such paper and its map ( see p. 56). 

A few years ago the late Mr. R. J. W. Purdy, of 
P'oulsham, who was one ■ of our most observant local 
antiquaries (and to whom was also due the investi- 
gation of the very interesting moated mound at Burgh- 
by-Aylsham), informed me that there was a road called 
by some a Roman road, and still traceable from East 
Gate Corner at Cawston across the main Norwich and 
Holt road, about half-a-mile south of the tenth milestone 
from Norwich, which is about 440 yards from the Woodrow 
Inn, and then runs across the fields to a little south of the 
Botany Bay farmhouse, and at an angle across Marsham 
Heath and the Burnt Plantation practically to Allison Street, 
and so across the Cromer road through the grounds of the 
Old Rectory, now known as Marsham Hall. I must own 
to having been sceptical at first, but after several visits, and 
after the ground of the Burnt Plantation had been opened 
in several places, through the kindness of Mr. Wood, the 
owner, I can no longer doubt that a perfectly straight road 
or trackway could be traced for a trifle over a mile (shown 
by double lines on page 56). It only consists of a slight 
layer of gravel and stones over the natural peaty soil, but it 
does exist and is very marked, and the portion of it over the 
field opposite Botany Bay, looking towards Booton, stood 
up till last year quite clearly from the soil of the field, and 
the colour of the corn, etc., grown over it was distinctly 
different from that of the main crop in the field. At sunset, 
too, one could see the little ridge quite clearly, though it 
is fast being ploughed away. 



54 ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOLK. 

The importance of the discovery of this straight base 
line of over a mile is very great. Producing such line west- 
ward on the Ordnance Map, we find that if there had been 
a road on that line it would have run through the earth 
works at North Elmham and on to Old Lynn; and if produced 
eastwards it would have crossed the Cromer road just at the 
spot where the late Mr. Goddard Johnson alleged a Roman 
road did cross it. 

The line still further produced east would cut the Ayl- 
sham road and the railway a little south of the spot at 
Brampton where coins and urns were found when the rail- 
waj^ cutting was being made, and through the spot where 
Sir Thomas Browne found, in 1667, the urns which he 
describes in his "Urn Burial." 

Still continuing the imaginary line east, it crosses the 
Bure almost exactly at the spot where the present foot or 
keeper's bridge stands, and where a Roman coin (a large 
brass of Antoninus) has just been found, and so along south 
of Burgh -Mound (where we recently found Roman pottery) 
and south of Stow Heath, where so many Roman remains 
were found, and across the high street of Burgh near the 
church (where Goddard Johnson said the Roman road 
crossed), towards Scottow and Sloley, through Stoneyhills 
Plantation (a suggestive name), direct to the so-called 
Roman Camp at Way ford Bridge. 

There can be no imagination about the fact that the 
lind from Old Lynn to Wayford Bridge is an absolutely 
straight one, and that there are still traces of a straight ac- 
tual .main road along such line for a little over a mile in the 
middle of it, at and near Marsham Heath, and that it cuts 
a Roman cemetery at Brampton. 

Whether this straight line was in the remote past laid 
out merely to form a guide from the West to the East is a 
matter to consider, and it would be most interesting if the 
local members of this Society would look up the actual line 
itself and see if they can find out if there are any traces of 
Roman pottery, etc., on it. 

I have just been told that an old inhabitant of Marsham 
was told by his father that the trackway across the Burnt 
Plantation to the Aylsham road was in actual use before tlie 
Inclosure Act. 

As for the eastern half of the suspected road, I rather 
think that it did not follow the actual, or what I may term 
the guide or laid-out line much further than Scottow, but 



ROMAN CAMPS & REMAINS IN NORFOI.K. 55 

that the road ran more southerly, but exactly parallel with it 
through Scottow churchyard till it crossed the North Wal- 
sham road a few yards north of the Fairstead and the Three 
Horseshoes. 

It is a most significant fact that at this spot there is 
still an almost straight road, now called Anchor Street, 
which runs east (parallel with my imaginary line) for a little 
over a mile (crossing the East Norfolk rail) by Sloley Farm 
almost to the Union Workhouse. There the present road to 
Smallburgh Hill angles off to the north, but if the line of 
Anchor Street is produced west over four fields we take up 
another straight piece of the old road which I suspect to 
have been Roman. From this point it seems to me that 
the Roman road ran round the edge of the great and then 
impassable marsh, and passed by Toad's Green and Low 
Street and the Manor House to Wayford Bridge and the 
Roman Camp. 

Whether the great earthworks at Smallburgh Hall it- 
self had to do with an occupation camp there I leave to- 
others. It is certain that near the Manor House at Low 
Street Roman remains have been found, and also querns 
near Smallburgh Hall. (The fine Roman urn's, etc., now at 
Smallburgh, are those found on Mr. Postle's land at Stow- 
heath just mentioned.) 

If I am right that the Roman road ran through Scottow 
Church, it would account for the Roman urn which was 
found in 1777, 400 yards from the front of Scottow Hall 
(Tom Martin's MS. Notes in my collection). 



56 R03L\X CAMPS & IIE3IAIXS IN XORFOLK. 







7<;:>v 




•« ^^» ft'i** ;r"*^ J*/. 




i 



Rye's Norfolk Hand Lists. 

A.rti : issued by Subscripboo cr.y 

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References to all Srawlinavian Place and Personal 
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he 

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. . ii _; ::.- .tirv:-.ch Buildings ,i::-t: i.^an ^:v_; :..;:. 

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No. 7. 

"A rough Ordinary or Inde 

' ^' : - •' ? parts were gre any emargea :■ :i 

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